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Australian scientists believe that chameleon cells can define the future of vaccines

Adam Layaan Kurik Riza

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Australian scientists are assured that they have found significant implications for the future of T cell-based vaccines, including second generation COVID-19 vaccines.

Their findings were revealed on Tuesday and were published in Nature Immunology, which gives an insight into the function tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells play in the immune system, and describe how the cells behave in different body tissues.

TRM cells are only found in tissues, they will not be in circulation or the blood, and are required for immune protection against viral infections and are able to control melanoma skin growths.

The research team, led by University of Melbourne Professor Laura Mackay, a laboratory head at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, looked at the behavior of TRM cells in various body tissues.

The comparison of barrier organs that are exposed to the environment, such as the skin, to solid organs such as the liver, the immunologists found that the place in which TRMs are raised impacts how they contribute to immunity.

Researcher Susan Christo said finding out the molecular signatures of TRM cells in specific tissues would help in the development of T cell-based vaccines and immunotherapies.

“For example, if you want effective T-cell mediated immunity against a respiratory virus like SARS-CoV-2 or influenza, you want to induce TRM cells in the lung,” Christo said. “That way, the memory of the infection exists at the site of potential pathogen encounter. We found that TRM cells act like chameleons when they enter into a new tissue – they rapidly adapt to the molecules and proteins around them and can take on a new ‘image’ or phenotype.”

“The tissue surroundings also control how these cells behave – TRM cells in the skin are suppressed by a particular protein called TGF-b, which acts like a handbrake to stop these cells from unnecessary activation that may cause autoimmunity, such as psoriasis, but still allows them to fight against dangers like melanoma.”

“One key advantage of skin TRM cells is they can last a really long time and will be ready to attack when the body is in true danger.”

The team found the TRMs in the liver do not have this TGF-b “handbrake” and therefore have a greater ability to form a bigger pool of cells. “You could think of them as generating a large army of soldiers that fight the infection,” Christo said. “However liver TRMs have a shorter half-life and might not be around to fight future battles.”

“This is also the case for short-lived TRM cells in the lung, which has significant implications on the durability of vaccines against the flu and COVID-19. Therefore, our study provided the first evidence of what our immune cells need to last the distance and protect us for a long time.”

Source: Xinhua News Agency

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Afghan farmers welcome harvest season of onions

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Afghan farmers in northern Balkh province welcome the harvest season of onions.

Afghan farmers harvest onions at a field in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan, Sept. 20, 2021. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

 

Afghan farmers harvest onions at a field in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan, Sept. 20, 2021. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

 

Afghan farmers harvest onions at a field in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan, Sept. 20, 2021. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

 

An Afghan farmer carries a package of harvested onions at a field in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan, Sept. 20, 2021. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

 

Photo taken on Sept. 20, 2021 shows packages of harvested onions in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

 

An Afghan farmer harvests onions at a field in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan, Sept. 20, 2021. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

 

An Afghan farmer shows harvested onions at a field in Sholgara district of Balkh province, Afghanistan, Sept. 20, 2021. (Photo by Kawa Basharat/Xinhua)

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Declaration presented to Parliament requesting shore protection in an eroding area at Felidhoo

Adam Layaan Kurik Riza

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A declaration has been presented to the Parliament advocating the deployment of coast protection measures in V. Felidhoo’s eroding region.

Felidhoo MP Fazul Rasheed presented the declaration at today’s parliamentary session, citing that the area has been deteriorating at an unusually fast rate and urging the government to accelerate the execution of coast safeguards in the vicinity.

Whilst speaking on the declaration, Fazul stated that while the extreme erosion of the region has caused numerous issues for the island’s population, it has also had a substantial negative influence on the ecology. He went on to say that the erosion had damaged the island’s hospital as well as several of the houses.

Fazul went on to say that while the installation of shore fortification at the eroding at Felidhoo was specified in this year’s PSIP budget, no work has been done on it, not even a reconnaissance of the eroding area.

“Without a comprehensive solution to the problem, erosion will continue. The hospital and school’s walls have nearly collapsed due to erosion. Residents of Felidhoo are in a precarious situation,” he added.

Fazul further stated that, despite the fact that Felidhoo is an island that practices local tourism, the beach designated for tourists has been entirely degraded.

He also stated that the island’s extreme erosion has had an influence on the mental health of the Felidhoo locals.

 

Source: Xinhua News Agency

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Iran’s president says his country does not believe the US government’s promises

Adam Layaan Kurik Riza

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On Tuesday, Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi stated that his country does not trust the promises made by the US government, while also stating that he wishes constructive contact with other countries around the world.

“We don’t believe the promises made by the US government,” Raisi said during the General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly’s 76th session, which began Tuesday at the UN headquarters in New York.

“Today, the entire world, including the Americans themselves, have publicly acknowledged that the project of countering the Iranian people, which manifested itself in the form of violating the JCPOA (the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, referring to the 2015 Iran nuclear deal) and was followed by maximum pressure’ and arbitrary withdrawal from an internationally recognized agreement, has completely failed,” he writes. Taking into consideration the strategy of “The Iranian president stated that “we seek nothing more than what is properly ours” while the “maximum tyranny” is still in effect. We demand that international rules be followed.”

“In practice, all parties must adhere to the nuclear deal and the UN Resolution,” he stressed.

“Fifteen IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) assessments have attested to Iran’s adherence to its agreements,” he stated. “However, the United States has not yet fulfilled its responsibility, resulting in the relaxation of sanctions. It has violated the deal, withdrew from it, and imposed even harsher punishments on my people.”

“The United States incorrectly imagined it would drive us desperate and heartbroken, but our perseverance has brought results and will continue to do so because the Islamic Republic of Iran’s smart and dynamic resistance stems from our strategic logic,” said the Iranian president.

“While resolutely preserving all of its rights and the interests of its people,” Raisi stated, “Iran is eager to engage in large-scale political and economic cooperation and convergence with the rest of the world.”

“I seek effective contact with all countries in the world, particularly our neighbors, and warmly shake their hands,” he added.

 

Source: Xinhua News Agency

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