U.S. long-arm jurisdiction harms int’l order, rule of law
BEIJING, Feb. 3 (Xinhua) — The United States has a longstanding practice of exerting frequent long-arm jurisdiction over other countries, which severely harms the international political and economic order and the rule of law.
In essence, long-arm jurisdiction is an arbitrary judicial practice wielded by the U.S. government on the strength of the U.S. hegemony to enforce extraterritorial jurisdiction over entities and individuals of other countries on the ground of its domestic law.
In line with international law, the exercise of a country’s jurisdiction over an extraterritorial person or entity generally requires that the person or entity or its conduct has a real and sufficient connection to that country. Yet the United States exercises long-arm jurisdiction on the basis of the “minimum contacts” rule, constantly lowering the threshold for application.
Meanwhile, to exercise long-arm jurisdiction, the U.S. government has further developed the “effects doctrine,” meaning that jurisdiction may be exercised whenever an act occurring abroad produces “effects” in the United States, regardless of whether the actor has U.S. citizenship or residency, and regardless of whether the act complies with the law of the place where it occurred.
Long-arm jurisdiction has become a means by which the United States abuses unilateral sanctions, especially secondary sanctions. According to the Treasury 2021 Sanctions Review, by fiscal year 2021, the number of active U.S. sanctions designations had increased to more than 9,400.
U.S. sanctions have strained relations between countries and undermined the international order. So far, the “long arm” of U.S. jurisdiction has reached China, Russia, Iran, Syria, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Cuba, France, Britain, Germany, Japan, among others.
Long-arm jurisdiction has become a tool for the U.S. authorities to interfere with normal international commercial exchanges and competition.
In 2013, in order to beat Alstom in their business competition, the United States applied the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act to arrest and detain then Alstom’s senior manager Frederic Pierucci on charges of bribing foreign officials. He was further induced to sign a plea deal and provide more evidence and information against his company, leaving Alstom no choice but to accept General Electric’s acquisition, vanishing ever since from the Fortune 500 list.
In an article published in Foreign Affairs magazine, Professor Daniel Drezner of Tufts University criticized successive U.S. administrations for abusing economic coercion and economic violence, and using sanctions as the preferred solution to diplomatic problems, which have been causing humanitarian disasters.
When COVID-19 was raging across the world, the U.S. government did not relent in imposing unilateral sanctions on Iran, Syria and other countries, making it difficult for these countries to obtain the much-needed medical supplies to fight the virus. As a result of the sanctions, Iran has been cut off access to essential medicines and medical equipment, putting the health of millions of Iranians in jeopardy.
Long-arm jurisdiction not only undermines the principle of sovereign equality, violates international law, and erodes the multilateral order with the United Nations at its core, but also creates and intensifies tensions and conflicts among major countries, and poses a threat to the international security system established after World War II. It also interferes with and distorts normal international commercial exchanges and trade order, disrupts the supply chain of global trade, damages the interests of enterprises and raises their operating costs.
The United States should renounce its illegal unilateral sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction measures, and truly take up its international responsibilities as a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
Japanese government to spend extra 2 trillion yen to ease high inflation
TOKYO, March 20 (Xinhua) — The Japanese government plans to spend over 2 trillion yen (15 billion U.S. dollars) out of its reserve funds to take additional measures to ease the pain of accelerating inflation, local media said Monday.
As part of a fresh inflation-relief package, the government plans to add around 1.2 trillion yen to the extant temporary subsidies for regional development, allowing local municipalities to use flexibly, Kyodo News reported citing government sources.
Of the amount, 500 billion yen will be used to support low-income families to cushion the impact of high prices, with the government planning to give 30,000 yen to each low-income household, the report said.
Meanwhile, the government will spend around 1 trillion yen to give an extra 50,000-yen handout per child for low-income child-rearing families, it added.
The government will hold talks with the ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party and Komeito before adopting the package as early as Wednesday, Kyodo News said.
“We will draw up additional steps and implement them swiftly to protect people’s livelihoods and businesses,” Chief Cabinet Secretary Hirokazu Matsuno told a regular press briefing.
Reserve funds in a state budget are allocated for use in emergency situations and the government is not required to seek parliamentary approval for the way the money is spent.
Iranian FM says to meet Saudi counterpart soon
TEHRAN, March 19 (Xinhua) — Iranian foreign minister said on Sunday that he will meet his Saudi counterpart Prince Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud in the near future.
Hossein Amir-Abdollahian made the remarks to Iranian and foreign reporters at a press conference in Tehran, adding Iran and Saudi Arabia have agreed to arrange visits by technical teams to prepare the ground for sending diplomatic missions and reopening embassies.
He also noted that Iran’s relations with Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates were upgraded to the level of ambassadors, and the bilateral ties with Saudi Arabia returned to normalcy after five rounds of fence-mending talks in Baghdad and other negotiations hosted by Beijing.
On the likeliness of improvements in Iran’s relations with Egypt, Jordan and Bahrain following the rapprochement with Saudi Arabia, Amir-Abdollahian said that Tehran recently sent its delegation to Manama to visit the Iranian embassy as well as other diplomatic places there.
Amir-Abdollahian stressed that Iran welcomes the normalization of relations with neighboring and regional states, expressing hope that the existing obstacles to normalizing ties with Bahrain would be removed.
Iran maintains that Egypt is an important country and welcomes any improvement in bilateral relations, he noted.
The minister said that he held brief talks with Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi on the sidelines of the Baghdad Conference for Cooperation and Partnership in Jordan last December, after which negotiations were held with Egyptian officials on improving bilateral political relations.
Amir-Abdollahian said during the same conference, he also held friendly and cordial talks with King Abdullah II of Jordan, in which the latter expressed willingness to visit Iran in the near future.
China, Saudi Arabia and Iran on March 10 announced that the latter two had reached a deal that included the agreement to resume diplomatic relations and reopen embassies and missions within two months.
News analysis: Why is Chinese President Xi Jinping going to Russia?
At the invitation of his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, President Xi Jinping will pay a state visit to Russia from March 20-22, the Chinese Foreign Ministry has announced.
This will be Xi Jinping’s first trip overseas since being elected president of China for a third term earlier this month.
The visit is set to map out the blueprint for developing the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era, Wang Wenbin, spokesperson for the ministry, told media at a regular press briefing in Beijing on Friday, minutes after the announcement.
President Xi’s visit will be a trip of friendship, cooperation and peace, said Wang.
Analysts say China has been developing its relations with Russia on the basis of no alliance, no confrontation and no targeting of any third party, and they criticize Washington’s Cold War mentality in framing the ties.
China and Russia: Friendship of integrity, openness
Now Xi is about to set foot on Russian soil for the ninth time as Chinese president. Notably, Russia was also the destination of his first state visit after becoming president for the first time in 2013.
On his last visit to Russia in 2019, the two countries celebrated the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. In 2021, the two presidents commemorated the 20th anniversary of the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between China and Russia and decided to extend the pact.
Over the past 10 years, China and Russia cooperated actively under the guidance of the two heads of state, Yuri Tavrovsky, a professor of the Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship, told Xinhua. Tavrovsky said he expects the leaders of the two countries will open up more new areas for bilateral cooperation in the future.
In a recent interview, Chinese Ambassador to Russia Zhang Hanhui hailed the state of China-Russia economic and trade cooperation. In 2022, the bilateral trade hit a record high of $190.27 billion, up 120 percent compared with 10 years ago, said Zhang.
The proportion of settlements in local currencies continued to grow, with Russian banks extensively carrying out transactions in the RMB currency, said the ambassador.
“It is clear that the China-Russia contact is not the alleged alliance between a big brother and a little one,” said an international affairs commentator who goes by the pen name Chaoyang Shaoxia in a social media post.
“Instead, it is a friendship of integrity and openness that seeks win-win outcome between gentlemen.”
Regarding Xi’s visit next week, the commentator said it is only natural for leaders of the two neighbors to maintain regular contact and visits, “with or without the Ukraine crisis.”
Other countries cannot dictate the way China and Russia develop their relations, he said.
No targeting of any third party
In recent years, the United States has ramped up its efforts to contain China and Russia. Since the outbreak of the Ukraine crisis, Washington has tried to weaken Russia when it urges Kyiv to “fight until the very last Ukrainian.” Meanwhile, it is promoting an “Indo-Pacific version of NATO,” an alliance system to tighten the siege of China.
In doing so, Washington wants to instigate a new Cold War where the U.S. and Europe would be fighting against China and Russia, said an analyst for Chaoyang Shaoxia.
“However, when the U.S. looks at China-Russia relations through the filter of the Cold War mentality and zero-sum game, it only sees the reflection of its own image,” he said.
He added that Washington’s containment of the two countries has backfired since it only produces an increasingly close “back-to-back” collaborative relationship between Beijing and Moscow.
The analyst warned that closeness might make the U.S. more anxious and insecure since Washington has long seen an alliance between China and Russia, and possibly Iran, as the greatest potential threat to its national security.
China has long made clear that its relations with Russia don’t target any third country and urged no Cold War mentality in international relations.
The way China and Russia develop their strategic partnership of coordination will benefit the two peoples and the world at large, reiterated the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson when briefing the media about Xi’s trip to the country.
“It is entirely different from what certain countries have been doing, including holding on to the Cold War mentality, ganging up with other countries, putting up cliques and stoking bloc confrontation and engaging in hegemonic, domineering and bullying practices,” said Wang Wenbin.
No blame game on Ukraine
The visit of the Chinese leader to Russia comes amid intensifying geopolitical tensions worldwide, the escalating Ukraine crisis in particular.
At Friday’s press briefing, Wang underscored that Xi’s visit will be a trip for peace. China will uphold an objective and fair position on the Ukraine crisis and play a constructive role in promoting talks for peace, he said.
During a phone call with Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Qin Gang on Thursday, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba briefed Qin on the conflict’s latest developments and the prospect of peace talks.
Kuleba said China’s position paper on the political settlement of the crisis shows its sincerity in promoting a ceasefire and an end to the conflict, and expressed the hope to maintain communication with China.
“We have reasons to believe that during the visit [by President Xi] to Russia, China will, as always, speak out for peace and do its best for peace,” said Chaoyang Shaoxia.
Though neither a maker nor a party to the Ukraine crisis, China has repeatedly made headlines in the U.S. media because of the crisis. A recent example is when U.S. National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan claimed without evidence that “China is considering providing lethal weapons to Russia” and threatened “real costs” for Beijing “if it goes down that road.”
When some in the U.S. trumpet that China should not support “Russia’s aggression” and Beijing must play a role in “persuading Russia to stop the war,” what they really mean is to shift the blame and hold China accountable for the prolonged conflict, said Chaoyang Shaoxia.
However, it is the United States that does not want the Ukraine crisis to cool down, he said, adding that the key to solving the crisis is not in the hands of China but in those of the U.S. and the West.
If they really want China to play a constructive role, the U.S. and the West should support China’s efforts and work together with it, he said.
“[They should] stop manipulating behind the scenes, pouring oil on the fire, diverting conflicts [and] smearing China with false accusations or even threatening it with sanctions.”
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