BEIJING, Dec. 13 (Xinhua) — By studying lunar samples retrieved by the Chang’e-5 mission, Chinese scientists found that lunar soil grains retain more solar wind-implanted water at the middle latitude region than previously thought.
Based on this finding, the scientists predict that there is a large amount of water resources available for utilization at the high latitude region of the moon.
Scientists had previously discovered the presence of surficial water on the moon. They believed that solar wind implantation, volcanic outgassing, and asteroid/comet impacts are likely to be important sources of surficial water on the moon.
But how does water reach and remain on the moon? How much water is in the lunar soil? How is the water distributed spatially? A study of the lunar soil samples returned by China’s Chang’e-5 mission has shed new light on these questions.
The research team, jointly led by scientists from the National Space Science Center (NSSC) and the Institute of Geology and Geophysics (IGG), both under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), published the new findings on Tuesday in the latest edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Lin Yangting, a researcher at the IGG who led the study, explained that the water they refer to is not water in the usual sense, but the structural water found in soil grains. Since hydrogen is one of the main components of water, the hydrogen concentration is usually used to express the water content.
The research team selected 17 lunar soil grains, including olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and glass, from Chang’e-5 samples and carried out experimental analysis of the hydrogen content and isotopes using a newly-developed profiling technique on a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer.
The scientists found that the average water content in the topmost 0.1-micron zone of the lunar grains is 0.7 weight percent, rather high for nonaqueous minerals. They then proved through the deuterium-hydrogen ratios that the water on the lunar surface was solely derived from the solar wind.
“The hydrogen ions emitted from the Sun reach at an average speed of 450 kilometers per second and they hit the surface of the lunar soil grains like bullets,” said Tian Hengci, the paper’s co-first author, an associate professor at the IGG.
Based on the analysis of heating experiments, the research team conducted the simulations on the preservation of hydrogen in lunar soils at different temperatures, and the results showed that the solar wind-originated water could be well preserved in the middle and high latitude regions of the lunar surface.
Previously, scientists were unable to use the returned samples to study the possible influence of latitude on water content on the lunar surface, since the lunar samples collected by the Apollo missions of the United States and the Luna missions of the Soviet Union were all from the low latitude areas of the moon.
China’s Chang’e-5 mission successfully retrieved 1,731 grams of lunar samples at the end of 2020. The probe landed at 43.06 degrees north latitude of the moon, higher than the latitudes of the landing sites of the Apollo and Luna missions. In addition, the crystallization age of the basalt in the Chang’e-5 landing area is about 2 billion years old, much younger than the sampling areas of the Apollo and Luna missions.
“The Chang’e-5 samples provided us with the opportunity to study the evolution of solar wind, and the implantation and migration of water on the lunar surface,” said Xu Yuchen, the co-first author of the paper from the NSSC.
The research team built a dynamic equilibrium model between hydrogen implantation by solar wind and diffusion loss by heating, based on the analysis results of the Chang’e-5 samples and the experimental data of the Apollo samples.
The model predicted that lunar grains in the high latitude region contain more solar wind-delivered water in their rims. The topmost 0.1-micron zone of the lunar grains could contain as much as 8.5 weight percent of water. And if the lunar soils are sorted by particle size, the water content in the particles less than 2 microns could reach 2 weight percent.
“This discovery is of great significance for the future utilization of water resources on the moon. China plans to build a scientific research station in the south polar region of the moon. Our research shows that the south polar region of the moon may have more water than previously thought. And it is relatively easy to exploit and use the water contained in the lunar soil through particle size sorting and heating,” said Lin.
German tech fair focuses on sustainability in consumer electronics
BERLIN, Sept. 1 (Xinhua) — As one of the world’s leading trade fairs for consumer electronics, the five-day IFA 2023 opened here on Friday with over 2,000 exhibitors from 48 countries and regions, a much greater scale than last year.
“In addition to all the historic brands you know and love at IFA, 30 percent of exhibitors are new this year,” Oliver Merlin, managing director of IFA Management, said in a statement issued on Friday.
According to the organizer, sustainability is a major priority of the trade fair. Ahead of IFA’s 100th birthday next year, the 2023 event for the first time dedicated an exhibit area to highlighting sustainability. Besides, it will have multiple forums to discuss how consumer electronic enterprises could develop in a more sustainable approach.
According to IFA official website, nearly 1,300 Chinese exhibitors have registered in this year’s event. Chinese companies such as Hisense, TCL and Haier have occupied some of the largest exhibit areas with various products.
While delivering a keynote speech on Friday, Hisense Group’s President Yu Zhitao said the company looks forward to expanding its overseas market share.
“In order to be more and more user-centric, we are upgrading and optimizing our products and services to meet consumer needs,” he said.
International Congress of Basic Science kicks off in Beijing
The inaugural International Congress of Basic Science (ICBS) took place in Beijing on Sunday with a theme of “Advanced Science for Humanity.”
The conference lasts two weeks, with over 800 top-notch scientists and scholars gathering to discuss frontier research in the fields of mathematics, theoretical physics, theoretical computer and information science.
Shing-Tung Yau, president of the International Congress of Basic Science and a Fields Medal winner, said in the opening speech that he is expecting the academic exchanges at the conference to contribute to the development of the world’s basic science knowledge. “I hope the renowned international scholars learn more about China and the young scholars learn from the best and set their goals.”
The scientists attending the conference include eight Fields Medal winners, four Turing Award winners, one Nobel Prize laureate and more than 50 academicians from different countries.
The conference is hosted by the People’s Government of Beijing Municipality, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, China Association for Science and Technology, and the International Consortium of Chinese Mathematicians.
European Space Agency launches Jupiter moons explorer
PARIS, April 14 (Xinhua) — The European Space Agency (ESA) launched on Friday an Ariane 5 rocket carrying its Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (Juice) from Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana.
According to the ESA, the successful launch marks the beginning of an ambitious voyage to uncover the secrets of the ocean worlds on Jupiter’s three largest moons: Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, which hold quantities of water under their surfaces in volumes far greater than in Earth’s oceans.
“These planet-sized moons offer us tantalizing hints that conditions for life could exist other than here on our ‘pale blue dot’,” the ESA said in its press release.
Over the next two-and-half weeks, Juice will deploy its various antennas and instrument booms, including a 16-meter-long radar antenna, a 10.6-meter-long magnetometer boom, and various other instruments that will study the environment of Jupiter and the subsurface of the icy moons, the agency said.
Juice will also monitor Jupiter’s complex magnetic, radiation, and plasma environment in depth and its interplay with the moons, thus studying the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giant systems across the Universe.
Juice has been designed for an eight-year cruise with flybys of Earth and Venus to slingshot it to Jupiter. It will make 35 flybys of the three large moons while orbiting Jupiter, before changing orbits to Ganymede, said the agency.
Fayyaz: We have no agreement with the Democrats
Chinese leader congratulates Muizzu, seeks to reinforce ties
Saudi Arabia hosts China-Arab publishing cooperation forum
Muizzu: No one will hold power over me other than the people
Muizzu: Will commence efforts to remove foreign soldiers on first day in office
Remarks by H.E. Ambassador Wang Lixin on the Occasion of the 74th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China
Muizzu calls for unity and urges to prioritize the nation
Elections Commission grants approval to form Maldives Solidarity Party.
Parliament’s 06th May Terror Attack Report Highlights Defence Minister Mariya Ali Didi’s Negligence.
Leaked documents show India refused to withdraw military personnel and helicopters from the Maldives even after their Visa’s expired.
Former President Mohamed Nasheed revokes support for the current administration in an open letter.
Hiyaa flats- pigeon coops, negative stereotyping and lobbying.
President Abdulla Yameen officially calls for the removal of Indian military personnel in the Maldives.
COVID-19: Racism, Blame Shifting and Politicizing a Pandemic.
News4 days ago
Dr. Muizzu wins 2023 presidential election
News6 days ago
Yameen welcomes MDA’s decision to endorse Muizzu
News7 days ago
Siyam: Will “work very hard” to elect Muizzu
World7 days ago
U.S. Senate advances short-term spending bill ahead of gov’t shutdown
News6 days ago
President: We will win election if MDP and Democrats unite
World6 days ago
China issues white paper on global community of shared future, a decade after vision proposed
News5 days ago
Ex-first lady appeals for votes for Muizzu ‘for Yameen’s sake’
News23 hours ago
Chinese leader congratulates Muizzu, seeks to reinforce ties